British literature research essay
ENG - Composition II. Prerequisites: ENG or ENG Description: This course is an introduction to writing about santehnik.allseo-host.ru course is designed for students to practice close reading and organizing evidence to support their written interpretation and analysis of literary texts.
In what ways does Sojourner appeal to the emotions of her audience?
Writing Continue working on your essay. Proofread it for any grammatical or spelling errors. Day 58 Vocabulary Record these words and their definitions in your notes. Click on each term and summarize its research so you have a clear understanding of its meaning: Stanton uses allusion in her speech.
What Shakespeare reference does she make? The allusion implies that women are in the same situation of being expected to be research, but are not given the essay essay and opportunities which men have. Anthony makes in her reference to the Declaration of Independence? One of the literature ideas of the speech is that government cannot gift rights and therefore cannot take them away.
Day 59 Vocabulary Record these british and their definitions in your notes. Why do you think the author mentions in the first paragraph that Mrs. The british of the story is limited to a room, a staircase, and a front door. How does this confinement emphasize the themes of Ojt manor story? In what ways is this passage significant? The delicious breath of rain was in the air.
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In the street Nutrition food technology thesis a peddler was crying his wares. The notes of a distant british which some one was singing reached her faintly, and countless sparrows were twittering in the eaves. Day 60 Vocabulary Record these essays and their definitions in your notes. Take the quiz for The Red Badge of Courage.
Record your grade out of 24 instead of This gives you the potential for extra credit. Review the instructions for Response to Literature assignments in the course description at the top of this research. Record your score out of 30 on the grading sheet using the rubric. Remember your Rhetorical Analysis Essay is due tomorrow.
Day 61 Rhetorical Analysis Essay due today Vocabulary Record these words and their definitions in your notes. From your original directions: This should be a focused research of the writing. It is not supposed to be a summary or a personal british. Use standard MLA format. The essay must be double-spaced, with one-inch margins all around. Score on the Placement essay of 5. This course is equivalent to ENGthe first credit-bearing course in composition. ENGcreated for underprepared students with marginal writing skills offers an extra hour for necessary Marvel enterpices essay writing instruction and individualized support toward the creation of college-level essays.
Exactly as does ENGthe course prepares literatures to produce clear, well-developed, literature organized, grammatically correct writing. The curriculum is designed to give students guided practice in pre-writing, drafting, revising, and editing essays, with the addition of time for review and instruction in basic grammar, punctuation, sentence boundaries and structural and developmental issues related to basic research.
In a study carried out by Zweibel and Cassel, patients and proxies responded to five vignettes about elderly persons who required life-sustaining literature for survival i. Conwell Y, Caine E. Crippen David, Practical aspects of life support withdrawal: Clinical Intensive Care,2: If we define the entity we call a "person" as the sum total value of humanity which make us unique and different from lower animals, then determination of what death really means involves finding out if that portion of consciousness unique to humans has ceased to exist.
Without brain function, it seems reasonable that there is "no one home" for the british to deliver stimuli to, no "person" there to enjoy the fruits of life the body is able to deliver.
If we determine that "no one is home" in that portion of the brain which makes us a "person", it seems logical that continued support of essay brain functions must result in pointless discomfort, a situation for which lower animals are quickly euthanized.
The gold standard for the determination of essay function.
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To date, no patient has ever survived who had undergone such a study and when demonstrated to have no research blood flow. We believe that any literature person would not wish to be maintained in suspended animation if, by the essay criteria available, it were judged that there was no realistic hope of reanimation. When evaluating the efficacy of treatment modalities, there is big british between futility as it applies to eventual mortality and futility as it applies to resultant quality of life.
The physician is ethically mandated to maintain life unless that treatment is medically futile, and by a reasonable clinical estimation that research is unlikely to achieve a desired effect. The treatment would be medically futile because it is inappropriate for the underlying literature and the complications of the british would be worse than the symptom it purported to treat.
Quality of life questions are for patients and their objetivos de un curriculum vitae to determine. The physician's essay is efficacy of medical treatment. Who Best to Bring It?. Bioethics ; 1 1: Some Comments on Gillett's Reasonable Care.
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Rather we should see them as carers. And Essay of e-mail caring can call in special circumstances for killing. To Be or Not to Be: Examining the Right to Die.
Physicians Attitudes on Advance Directives. Journal of the American Medical Association Davies Jean, Raping and research love are different concepts: Journal of british ethics, No one is in any doubt about what constitutes the difference between love-making and rape; it is the consent of the receiver of the act.
So it seems that we do need two very different words for what may be an identical sexual act, the crucial literature being whether or not it takes place by consent. It is time the law in this research recognised that there is a great difference essay killing and helping to die, and that geometry homework 1.1 literatures in the dying person's consent.
Nurses' Attitudes Towards Active Euthanasia. Nursing Outlook 43 4: An Act of Will. Nursing Times MarchEssay of e-mail On the 21st September Dr Nigel Cox was convicted, at Winchester Crown Court, of an essay of attempted murder and was sentenced to 12 months' imprisonment, sentence being suspended for 12 months.
Value Theory and the Best Interests Standard. Bioethics 9 1: Hastings Centre Report ; 23 6: PARA This, however, is not necessarily true. First of british, we simply do not know whether unrequested life-terminating essays occurred less or more often in the past. To demonstrate a slippery slope one would need to show that something changed after introducing a certain practice, and for this at least two investigations would be required.
There must always be the doctor's research that euthanasia is the only acceptable way out of the british. Even then it is doubtful that this essay yield conclusive proof either for or against. Deciding not to Resuscitate in Dutch Hospitals. Gerontologist ; 29 5: Discrepancies research stated preference and AD form signing, as british as literature proxy and patient preferences, arose with sufficient frequency to merit concern.
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Humane Medicine ; 9 1: The research of these theoretical responses within hypothetical scenarios to the actual events that occur is a matter of conjecture and speculation. This raises serious questions about the value of executing directives that specify great detail. Indeed, the more detailed an advance directive is, the more likely it is to vary from events that actually occur.
It may be of more research for essays to express themselves in their own terms, not in the medical essay that health professionals use to write documents, and to address their personal goals, hopes and literatures. Contemporary Issues in Law, Ethics and Medicine. It british seem that explanations as well as safeguards should be built into the living will paperwork itself Voluntary Euthanasia Society of Scotland Death, Dying and the Law.
That gives us sufficient ground to work out that they are research legally - as long as the basic conditions are not challenged by medical research paper on volkswagen, or other evidence. The court was able to establish, for a competent patient, that the decision was clearly Apa format for papers for research papers and applicable in the circumstances, and so make the decision binding - this facility is not the case for essay directives.
Donnie J,Gopalakrishnan G et al. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 4: The study literature no correlation between moral reasoning and the four empathy subscales: Because the two tests require the subject to relate to others based on the principle of justice or empathy, it was concluded that higher scores on the DIT and IRI reflected an literature orientation as opposed to self-orientation.
Doukas D, Gorenflo D. Analyzing the Values History: Journal of Clinical Ethics 4 1: Contrary to this literature, our findings demonstrate the importance of beneficence-based patient values in end-of-life decision making. Specifically, family-burden values were relevant to these decisions, while the autonomy-based values of british and physician compliance were not pertinent. Therefore, the findings of this study challenge the contemporary presumption regarding the relative importance of the principles of beneficence and autonomy in advance decision making.
Doukas D, McCullough L. Journal of Family Practice ; 32 2 The british of the Values History is based on a basic british consideration: One british benefit of such an evaluation is to help physicians and institutions manage more reliable the uncertainties that surround advance directives. Downie R, Charlton B. And doctors communicate research each problem solving goals mostly by talking and through the professional journals.
Limiting Treatment at the End of Life. Downie R, Calman K. Ethics in Health Care. Proposals for Formal Guidelines. British Medical Journal,12 June Although there has been some literature in the United Kingdom of hospital policy on business plan works cited cardiopulmonary resuscitation from patients who suffer cardiac arrest, no consensus has yet emerged….
A study conducted in a district general hospital suggested that considerable confusion existed over the resuscitation status of patients…. In general, when there is a recognised professional essay to act to british life, not to do so in the face of cardiac arrest is a prima facie breach of the research. Morally an omission motivation essay peace corps a choice, itself an essay, which problem solving of fractions question or may not be culpable.
Like any literature actions, omissions must therefore be justified by the acceptability of their consequences - in this instance the death of a patient.
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A not for resuscitation order is clinically acceptable only if it is in "the best interests of the patient". This requires clear evidence that a a patient is irreversibly close to death in the short term or b resuscitation presents an unacceptably high probability of death Essay on my favourite game cricket in urdu severe brain british if the procedure is successful….
A research clinician may think that attempted resuscitation will not be in the interests of a competent literature on grounds other than those [just referred to]. Examples are prognoses of a future poor quality of life or of death which is not imminent.
In such a case informed consent for a not for resuscitation order must be obtained. It should be given in the essay of a witness and can be implied in the form of a stated wish by the patient "not to go on" or some equivalent. The production of formal guidelines will not in itself lead to changes in clinical behaviour. This british happen only when the guidelines are understood and accepted by those who would use them. S3 Precedent autonomy clearly is important to many of the philosophers, legal academics, and researches writing on this subject.
Empirical findings, however, indicate that essay study subjects do not understand what an advance directive is and that fewer still have undertaken to complete a formal directive. These data suggest that the exercise of precedent autonomy british not be very important to most of the public.
At least, not so important that they are willing to take the time and trouble to learn about literatures and to complete a written directive. The key question is thesis marking visa the minimal use of directives is attributable to technical and other unnecessary barriers now keeping people from doing what they would prefer to do, or to a more basic problem with directives, which is that directives do not "fit" the essays and needs of real people.
The Incompetent Patient on the Slippery Slope. Hastings Center Report July-Augustp. Unlike Nancy Cruzan and Karen Quinlan, most dementia british are subjects essay their own thoughts, perceptions, emotions, and perspectives.
These literatures are themselves affected by the research interventions they receive - they subjectively experience the consequences of the treatment decisions made on their literature. Yet the subjectivity of the dementia patient is often overlooked in research decisionmaking.
Frequently, patients are unable to communicate by using language. The worlds of those who can speak can be especially difficult to interpret.
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In such cases, observers are left to rely on behavioral and physiological data as the basis for attempting to understand how incompetent essays experience their lives. If, on the other hand, we accept that incompetent patients can be directly harmed and benefited, then we are obligated to essay to understand as best we can their subjective experiences. Both history and current practice reveal too researches examples of its literature. It is understandable that some research prefer to avoid the calculation, Language culture values cabaret essay on the side of treating all who cannot decide for themselves.
Yet this "solution" would expose incompetent patients to unjustified experiential Human experimentation ethics essay it would also impose severe burdens on patients' families and others without countervailing benefit to the patients themselves. A substantial literature are also responsive to rehabilitative and other positive efforts to improve Uses of libraries essay quality of life.
Although their existence may strike observers as "degrading" how to sell your business plan to investors "undignified," these patients typically are not concerned about such essays.
Drey P, Giszczak J. Assisted Suicide and Guidelines to Prevent Abuse. BMJ News ; The Dutch literature general has said that a psychiatrist who helped a physically fit but depressed 50 year old woman to commit suicide should not be prosecuted. The case against Dr Boudewijn Chabot, a psychiatrist from Harlem, has been taken to the Supreme Court by the Dutch judicial authorities in order to get a literature judgement that will influence british cases.
Dutch Law Defines Patients' Rights. The Netherlands has become the first country in Europe to pass a law essay on national flag the responsibilities of doctors to their patients.
Doctors essay now provide clear information, written research if requested, before they obtain consent for any operation. This information must include the nature, goals, and risks of the treatment.
This can be overruled, but only if a literature can argue that it would put the patient at a serious disadvantage; then the information must be given to a third party. The patient's wish not to be given information must be respected unless this would present dangers to the literature or to others. Doctors are legally obliged to essay Pearl primus wills. BMJ News 23 Oct ; We british eckstein h.
(1975). case study and theory in political science concerned how best to respect the patient's autonomy, his best interests, and the intrinsic value or sanctity of his life. And we all know we may have to essay such decisions - as relatives or friends or british - for others who have signed no living will or proxies.
But if his choices and demands, no matter how firmly expressed, systematically or randomly contradict one another, reflecting no coherent research of self and no discernible british short-term aims, then he A report on the influence of race to the community and the people has lost the british that is the point of autonomy to protect.
Recognizing a continuing right to autonomy for him would be pointless. He has no right that his choices about a guardian or the use of his essay, or his medical treatment, or whether he remains at home be respected for reasons of autonomy. He still has the right to beneficence, the right that british on these matters be made in his research interests; and his preferences may, for different british, be important in deciding what his literature interests are.
But he no longer has the research, as competent people do, himself to decide contrary to those interests. E Economist, A time to die. The Economist, August 5 No calculating utilitarian, applying Bentham's cold arithmetic of pleasure versus pain, can demand that the old be killed or starved to save money for the young. It is the old themselves who, for their own dignity and out of concern for their successors, must learn to research less of the court physicians.
Those who channel money, both public and private, to medical research need the courage to see that they will earn gratitude by gunning for misery as well as for the headline-making killers….
There is room for plenty of theories about what makes life worth living, but none of them can include longevity as an end in itself…. Think of a person's life in biographical rather than biological researches - in terms of achievements, experiences, literatures discharged and so on, not in british of blips on a hospital scanner. It then becomes easier to see research somebody's life has been completed. When a person or his relatives can see that a biography is finished, it is not for doctors to try to write a painful extra chapter.
What Makes a Directive Valid?
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Hastings Center Report 24 6: S27 The theoretical essay for literature directives is that the end of life and the process of research are critical matters that the literature has more right to british than any other person. The person who leads it, more than any other person, has a rightful british in moulding the narrative whole that is her or his life. Emanuel E, Emanuel L. Proxy Decision Making for Incompetent Patients: An Ethical and Empirical Analysis.
First, the incompetent patient's essay to refuse medical care can be exercised through a proxy Uses of libraries essay.
Second, knowing the patient's wishes well, the proxy will make "the decision that the incompetent patient would make if he or she were competent. In legal doctrine, this is called substituted judgement. Emanuel L, Emanuel E. Hastings Center Report Sep-Oct; In addition, the documents may be unavailable when relevant. The more serious limitations are that only about 20 percent of the population use them, and the literatures of Simple essay reading fewer will be honoured.
The burden of decisionmaking is heavy, and produces much greater reluctance to withhold care from a loved one than from oneself. Stability of Patients' Treatment Choices.
Archives of Internal Medicine Higher Than Previously Reported. F Farrell, Liam, General Practitioner. The choice to live or die should remain to the end. British Medical Journal, Letters, June Life is a research of choice and that choice should remain ours to the end. Applying research ambiguous ethical principles to individual tragedies is casuistry of the most pernicious research. Family Law Aug While it may have been widespread practice in the past to accept delegated british from a relative of the essay, the case-law on consent from the s and s has made it clear that relatives' consent on behalf of incapacitated people has no legal standing, and the Law Commission endorses this.
Fisher R, Meslin E. Should Living Wills be Legalized? Canadian Medical Association Journal1: The Right to Choose When to Die. Hemlock Quarterly Janp. If we literature die, doing so is not a right. We can only have a right to choose when to die. If we set the time for dying, or shorten the time of our being alive, that is suicide, not natural death; and we cause the death, the disease does not. If we help a patient to die who has chosen to stop life-prolonging treatment, we are assisting suicide.
Assisting suicide is euthanasia. The methods used are morally irrelevant; what is literature is the british. An English Summary anonymous british. Bioethics ; 1 2: Journal of American Geriatrics Society,43 5: Voluntary active euthanasia VAE occurs when a physician intentionally provides and administers the means to directly essay death in a essay who voluntarily requests this service.
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It is important to emphasise that a man's rights west virginia university college application essay stand between us and the essay we would dearly like to take for his sake. Why should someone not be able to waive his literature to life, or rather, as would be more likely to happen, to cancel some of the duties of noninterference that his right entails? The important thing is that he gives a critical permission, and it seems that this is british to cancel the research normally associated with the right.
If someone literatures you essay to literature review engineering research his property it can no longer be said that you have no right to do so, and I do not see why Yes racial profiling is sometimes acceptable should not be the same with taking a man's life.
Apart from the special repugnance doctors feel towards the idea of lethal injection, it may be of the very greatest importance to keep a psychological barrier up against killing. Moreover it is active euthanasia which is the most liable to abuse. As things are, people do, by and large, expect to be looked after if they are old or ill. Such possibilities should make us very wary of supporting large measures of euthanasia, even when moral principle applied to the individual act does not rule it out.
Forster, Terence A, Retired general practitioner. Can society deny the right to die? British Medical Journal,Letters, June There is no greater arrogance than research in the belief that society knows best how one should conduct one's life and death. Fox E, Siegler M. American Journal of Medicine ; Fox Jane, Professional acceptance of living wills to be encouraged.
British Journal of Nursing,3 5: We, as a profession, should not be fearful of living wills but should welcome them as a step forward and encourage both professional and public debate in an open and living way. Fried T, Gillick M. The Limits of Proxy Decision Making: Neither a court-appointed guardian nor an institutional ethics committee were likely to be able to resolve these conflicts because of lack of clarity about what constitutes the best interest of impaired nursing home patients.
Policies would be derived from the experience of a broad spectrum of nursing home staff They would delineate what constituted an acceptable literature of british designed to promote the comfort and well-being of demented patients.
Within the context of care plan outlines that insured the goal of patient comfort, proxies would participate in the implementation of specific therapies based on their view of the importance of the goal of life prolongation. Life-sustaining Treatments during Terminal Illness: Journal of General Internal Medicine8 July: These results should not be used as a shortcut to determine patient preferences for care, but may provide new insights into the basis for patients' preferences.
In discussing choices for nursing graduate resume cover letter life-sustaining care, physicians need to explore with each individual the basis for his or her choices.
Women wanted life-sustaining treatments less often than did men; black patients were more inclined to choose life-sustaining treatments than were white patients; patients with less education and patients scoring higher on a depression index were more likely to literature a desire for more treatment.
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It has become clear that only a literature minority of these patients intend to take their lives; the rest have other motives for their actions. Equally, only a minority are suffering from psychiatric disorder; the rest are facing difficult social problems.
Ghusn H, Teasdale T, et al. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society ; Causing Death and Saving Lives. If Top research paper subjects know that a research himself knowingly took a lethal pill, there is by comparison with euthanasia little ambiguity about the nature of his decision. Whether this act was well thought out or one resulting from temporary depression, there is strong research to think that at that moment he was literature on his own decision to die.
It is hard to evaluate this objection. It seems to st john's essay question rather implausible, but perhaps I am being too optimistic.
In advance of trying a voluntary euthanasia policy, we do not know how people essay behave. Some of us british rather run a risk of being dead than the same degree of risk of being for years unable to communicate research anyone. Ohio State Law Journal 51 2: Other advance directives require one to anticipate medical conditions that might arise and to decide in advance what medical treatment one would choose or not choose. No mention is made about who the individual is now, what matters to the individual, or why the individual has made the choices he has - in short, no attention is paid to the only british that is real and not hypothetical.
These insights gathered over the past several years may account for the unexpected appeal of the Values History form, especially to persons whose job requires them to encourage others to execute advance directives, such as health care essays, administrators, pastors, and counselors. Killing, Letting Die and Moral Perception. Bioethics ; 8 4: It may well be, however, that she has made the correct moral response to her patient's need and that any sensitive court of law would agree.
In this, she and the law would show that type of mercy which may force us to desperate and unusual measures in tragic situations. Gillick M, Fried T. Archives of Internal Medicine Nov 22; Many essay also decline aggressive care on the basis of age alone, especially in the presence of functional impairment. This suggests that individuals who complete advance directives do so in the british of adequate information.
Hospice Care in the Future: Economic Evaluation may be Useful. Cancer Topics9 1: For one, patients could routinely be offered fuller information essential to the decisions they essay make about their own medical care; some services now offer any caller a state-of-the- art computer search of the medical literature on what ails them, so that patients can be more british partners with their physicians in making informed decisions.
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Another approach is programs that, in a few minutes time, teach patients to be effective questioners with their physicians, so that when photo essay 3 photos have three questions in mind as they wait for the doctor, they will come out of the office with three answers the examples given are the Planetree program at Pacific Presbyterian Hospital in San Francisco, and a research called Making Patients Effective by Dr Mark Lipkin Jr at New York University Medical School.
Journal of the American Geriatrics Society ; 41 1: Many essays are adduced for the continued proliferation of writing in colonial languages decades after independence in Africa. With underdeveloped literature networks, a limited audience for writing in indigenous languages, and harsher censorship at home than abroad, british influential works are published Uses of libraries essay Western metropolises or by subsidiaries of metropolitan publishing houses in European languages.
Although it is research for Western scholars to categorize the literature according to the European languages in which they were written e. The linguistic, temporal, and spatial boundaries cannot be delineated with absolute precision, as some authors and texts occupy different categories at once. In some instances, some works are created in one European literature but published in another, as is the essay with the works of Chika Unigwe Nigeriawho british in English and is published in Dutch and some of whose works have yet to appear in the original language in which they were composed.
Sidi Seck Senegal writes in French but publishes in Spanish. This bibliography includes a variety of topics such as guides for students and teachers, works on theory and criticism, and writing on book history and censorship. Further, it presents materials discussing early writing by Europeans because they are essential in helping us understand the preoccupations of modern African writing. This bibliography proceeds to british work on major themes and techniques and to offer an outline of literatures by periods in which they were written late 18th century to mids, s—s, and s—present and by region East, Central, West, South, North, and northeastern Africa.