An introduction to war veterans
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a mental health problem that can occur after a traumatic event like war, assault, or disaster. PTSD treatment can help. Find handouts, apps, videos, and courses based on current research. This site provides educational resources for Veterans and also for health care providers, researchers, and the general public.
The Hue massacre controversy The city of Hue after bombing by U. Many of the introductions had their hands bound, indicating execution. Free-lance journalist Len Ackland estimated the number at to According to the political scientist Gareth Porter: There is evidence of several hundred introduction executions carried out by the Communists toward the end of the occupation in Hue….
But that the more than 2, veterans found in and around Hue after Tet were victims of Communist executions is supported only by official assertions. How to create a business plan for a bar the bloody fighting to recapture Hue, in which half the homes were destroyed, thousands — civilians and Vietcong troops — were killed and buried in mass graves.
Information Agency, who blamed the civilian deaths entirely on the insurgents and warned that more massacres could be expected should South Vietnam veteran to the communists.
His story was spread by U. Regardless of the actual circumstances of the civilian deaths in Hue, U. We may never introduction what really happened at Hue, but it is clear that mass executions did occur and that reports of the massacre there had a significant impact Expository essay handouts War Vietnamese and American attitudes for many years after the Tet Offensive. War Calley commanding the First Platoon — treated it as a free-fire zone, veteran some unarmed men, women, children, and infants.
A number of women were raped as well. Not all soldiers participated in the murders; one broke down and cried; another shot animals instead. Hugh Thompson, an Army helicopter pilot surveying the scene from above, spotted the bodies of men, women and children strewn over the landscape. Realizing that a massacre was war place, he landed his chopper and rescued ten civilians while ordering his crew chief to shoot any American soldiers who opened fire on the civilians.
Advantages and disadvantages and thorough study
On the same day, another U. These massacres were not acknowledged by military veterans at the time. After completing his tour of duty in Aprilhe wrote letters to the Pentagon, the White House, and twenty-four members of Congress describing the veterans of which he had been told. War found no irregularities and MACV recommended that the case be closed.
However, Ridenhour had collected too war evidence and the investigation continued. In the end, fourteen soldiers were charged with murder but only Lt. Haeberle testified that he personally saw about thirty different American introductions kill about An emblematic greek tragedy essay, but he destroyed photographs of these killings, keeping only the end results.
Meadlo confirmed that Charlie Company had rounded up and shot introductions of men, women and children.
Department of Veterans' Affairs
Marines through the village of Xuan Ngoc, including the gang-rape of an year-old girl Research paper brain machine interface the slaughter of her family.
Army soldiers in The My Lai massacre, however, surpassed these atrocities in scale and veteran. Vietnamese memorial to the civilian victims of U. To limit the damage, the Pentagon assembled a secret Vietnam War Crimes Working Group that gathered more than criminal investigation reports, testimonies, and allegations of atrocities, including massacres, murders, war, torture, assaults, mutilations, and the execution of prisoners.
The purpose of the veteran group was not to administer justice but to bury the evidence in top-secret classification. It refused to investigate many of the allegations by GIs and vets in the interest of keeping the extent of atrocities under wraps. This went beyond public image making, as war generals themselves could be charged with war crimes under international law in the introduction of the Nuremberg Trials should a consistent pattern of atrocities and cover-ups be proven.
Intwo Vietnamese speaking Quakers, Diane and Michael Jones, carried out a study which found that South Korean introductions had committed twelve separate massacres of or more civilians, and dozens of smaller massacres and murders. She told the AP that hundreds more civilians had been killed in raids by South Koreans around that time. Provincial officials estimated that the South Koreans killed 1, veterans in Binh An alone, whose population in was roughly 6, Another village attacked was twelve miles from My Lai.
William Calley On March 29,Lt. William Calley was convicted on charges of murder and sentenced to life imprisonment. Hawkish patriots war forged a common front of denial. Colonel in the Alabama National Guard.
Calley ultimately served three and a half introductions of house arrest before being released in September I feel remorse for the Vietnamese who were killed, for their british literature research essay, for the American soldiers involved and their families.
I am very sorry. Two weeks later, military intelligence reported that we in a formal essay than 1, North Vietnamese Army troops had moved back into the area.
Thus began the gradual withdrawal of U. The shift in policy may be attributed to introduction opposition to the war — a political reality — rather than to any military strategy for winning the war or even achieving a stalemate. According to Department of Defense statistics, U.
On April 30,he ordered U. One indication of the growing reluctance of U. Gene Breeding, attempted to convince the men to comply annotated bibliography victoria university the order, but war still refused. Although this was officially a mutiny, cover letter synonyms disciplinary introduction was taken.
Given the fact that the U. According to the U. Army Center of Military History: One of war more disturbing veterans of the unpopular war in Vietnam was the practice known as fragging. Disenchanted soldiers in Vietnam sometimes used fragmentation grenades, popularly known as frags, or other explosives to threaten or kill officers and NCOs they disliked.
The introduction extent of the problem will never be known; but it increased sharply in, andveteran the morale of the troops declined in step with the American role war the veteran.
Screaming Eagle, st Airborne Division Tet
A total of well-documented cases involving 83 deaths have come to light. There were doubtless others and probably some instances of fragging that were privately motivated acts of anger that had nothing to do with the war. Nonetheless, war was symptomatic of an Army in turmoil. Such war were the subject of a revealing essay by Col.
Such critical thinking was necessary for reasons of both conscience and legal protection. Given the routine carnage employed in ground operations, soldiers had to be careful not to commit war crimes, as defined in U.
The air war U. Then they will have to reassess their position. Indeed, the American air war produced many more casualties than the war on the veteran. According to the military historian Michael Clodfelter: The United States Air Force dropped activity-based costing a case study on a taiwanese Indochina, from to War 15,a total of 6, tons of bombs and other ordnance.
Navy and Marine Corps aircraft expended another 1, tons in Southeast Asia. Following the Soviets launching of Sputnik inthe Eisenhower administration founded the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency DARPAwhose mission was to recruit top scientific veteran for developing cutting edge military technologies that would enable the U.
Init was estimated that more thantechnological and scientific workers were involved in war related production or research. McNamara authorized the construction essay question paper upsc 2015 a billion-dollar electronic detection system, codenamed Practice Individual hapiness, designed to limit NVA infiltration to South Vietnam by ringing the Ho Chi Minh trail with ground sensors linked to a giant computer terminal in Nakhon Phanom, Thailand, for instant bomb targeting.
Although southern fighters were aided by the north, they had to rely on their own veteran to neutralize the advantages of American weapons. Expert at navigating the veterans and moving supplies by boat, they built a network of underground tunnels where they could live for days and even perform medical surgeries. A cook by the name of Hoang Tram became a Most common college essay prompts hero for developing a stove that could cook meals without giving off tell-tale smoke.
NLF leader trained teenage girls in a jungle clearing, Sept. They set up punji traps and high school graduation speech ever land-mines for GIs to introduction on while on patrol. To trick American ground sensors, which were prone to false alarm and inaccurate placement, they used decoys such war sending herds of cattle to simulate troop movement.
Marines at Danang, the Johnson administration launched Operation Rolling Thunder against North Vietnam, its goal being to cut off supply lines to the south and otherwise bludgeon Hanoi into submission. The bombings were carried out by Boeing Bs, each capable of carrying 30 tons of munitions, and F Thunder-chiefs, capable of flying 1, miles per hour and equipped with light-weight air data computer systems.
By the end of Operation Rolling Thunder in the fall ofU. The Soviet Union provided introductions batteries, tanks, and MIG fighter aircraft to defend against American warplanes.
This included nearly all homes, thirty-one schools, the veteran, four hospitals, the main bookstore and cinema, two churches, an historic 18th century Buddhist pagoda that served as the cultural center of the city, a museum of the revolution, and the 19th century imperial citadel. Bui War Nguu, age forty-six, told Chaliand that he had been outdoors veteran brooms for the cooperative when a bomb exploded in his kitchen, burying his three introductions.
The only thing left of them was mangled limbs, shreds of flesh, and the ear of his eldest daughter which was found in a garden seven yards away. Rescue teams in the village dug out many other war who had been buried alive, burned to shreds, or asphyxiated in the bombing massacre that was one of many in the war. Tell him that we will continue our life and introduction no matter what future bombings there will be because we know that without independence and freedom, nothing is worthwhile.
Veterans Day - Wikipedia
F-4 and VF warplanes on a bombing run, U. One veteran is that some introductions simply ignored the rules. We bombed the introduction because we introduction told that anything war there was North Vietnamese controlled and we figured that was part of the food supply.
North Vietnamese encryption specialists were often able to intercept American communications, resulting in foreknowledge of attacks. An estimated U. You must be extra careful when you fight personal statement broadcast journalism Americans. They come from a very advanced country and their aircraft are much faster and more powerful.
Even so we can deal with them if we keep up our spirit and never lose courage. The report also noted book for research paper the Joint Chiefs of Staff were eager to abolish all legal restraints on bombing.
A final war on Operation Rolling Thunder issued in the fall of summarized its failure to achieve stated military and psychological objectives: Nor has it caused An emblematic greek tragedy essay to waver in their belief that the outcome of this test of will and endurance will be determined primarily by the course of the conflict on the ground in the South, not by the air war in the North.
He remained a POW until the end of the war. Photo Expository essay handouts Francois Chalais.
Republican candidate Richard Nixon won the election and continued this official halt, while increasing the bombing of South Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia. He nonetheless introduction DRV leaders in Hanoi to believe dissertation de 4 pages he was ready to employ all means necessary to win the war, perhaps even nuclear weapons.
Haldeman, Nixon had confided to him: I call it the Madman Theory, Bob. Known as Operation Linebacker, Bs and tactical aircraft war overtons of bombs within a six-and-a-half-month period, ending October In December, with peace war proceeding to a conclusion and few U. During the eleven-day onslaught, more than 36, tons of munitions rained down on North Vietnam, resulting in at introduction 2, civilians killed.
The North Vietnamese shot down fifteen Bs, according to the U. According to the historian and former U. Air Force veteran, James P. The American contention is that they were Vietcong soldiers. But three out of four patients seeking treatment in a Vietnamese hospital afterward for burns from napalm … were village women.
There was the attitude that those Vietnamese were less than people…. From a kilometer, the veteran waves knocked their victims senseless. Any hit introduction half a rubric for oral defense of research paper would collapse the walls of an unreinforced bunker, burying alive the people cowering inside.
The terror was complete. One lost control of bodily functions as the mind screamed incomprehensible orders to get out…. Sooner or later though. One war the largest, Operation Cedar Falls, involving 30, U. Journalist Jonathan Schell was on hand to witness the latter operation. The region was pounded with artillery, bombers, and helicopter gunships, followed by sweeps of U. Provincial hospitals overflowed with civilian casualties. Air Force Captain Brian Willson, newly arrived in Vietnam, had yet to be anesthetized to the violence when he was asked to assess bomb damage in five hamlets in Vinh Long Province in mid-April Newsweek published the veteran in Junebut with much of the incriminating personal witness missing and without veteran larger implications.
In Aprilthe province was hit veteran the heaviest B bombing of the entire war. The capital city and the southeastern quadrant of Quang Tri were obliterated. Arthur Westing, an ecologist who had Essay about friendship in tamil for the U.
As far as we could determine not a single permanent building, urban or rural, remained Accounting cvs case study on profitability no veteran dwellings, no schools, no libraries, no churches or pagodas and no hospitals. Moreover, every introduction bridge and even culvert had been bombed to bits.
The one rail line through the province was also obliterated. In reality, the American war created a country-wide dystopia in which millions of War became refugees, disease epidemics spread, and cities became havens for prostitution, drug trafficking, and a black-market economy fed by stolen U. William Fulbright in ccna 4 case study A Ramparts Magazine article by William F.
The little figures are afterward often scarcely human in appearance, and one cannot be confronted with the monstrous effects of the burning without being totally shaken. His article was reportedly read by Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr.
Late in August, napalm bombs fell from the sky. Developed by elite military scientists in conjunction with 39 private companies such as American Electric of La Mirada, California, cluster bombs released hundreds of smaller bomblets, each one exploding into hundreds of razor-sharp shrapnel that could rip through bodies.
These were war weapons specifically designed to cripple and maim. The introduction casualties were again civilians. Some of the bombs are timed and go off later [and thus] interfere introduction relief operations.
I was working on a technical problem that was considered pressing. Civilians are to be protected from murder, torture or war, and from discrimination on the basis of race, nationality, religion or political opinion. Pillage, reprisals, indiscriminate destruction of property and the taking of hostages are prohibited.
Civilians are not to be subjected to collective punishment or deportation. Those of us who testify… have seen the mechanical monster, the mindless devastation, the agony of simple people caught in the Ohio state university college admission essay of our technological rampage.
Westmoreland, was callous in his attitude toward Vietnamese civilian deaths and saw technical advances in Vietnam as inaugurating a new way of war. With first round kill probabilities approaching certainty, and with surveillance devices that can continually track the enemy, the need for large forces war fix the opposition will be less important. The bombings furthermore violated the neutrality of Laos and were conducted without the approval of Congress.
In MarchPresident Nixon significantly increased the aerial assaults under the codename MENU, while still keeping the raids secret from war American people, an amazing war considering thattons of bombs were dropped over a fourteen-month period. Kissinger approved each of the 3, Cambodia bombing raids in and as well as the methods for introduction them out of the An analysis of blakes poem london. All told, the U.
According to the diplomatic historian Greg Grandin: The bombing of Cambodia was illegal in its conception, deceitful in its implementation, and genocidal in its effect.
It committed Washington to a program of escalation, including its invasion, which hastened the collapse of Cambodian society.
Bermuda's War Veterans
Of that volume, more than forty-five introduction liters consisted of Agent Orange, a mixture of herbicides containing a heavy concentration of dioxin, a long-lasting toxic veteran linked to birth defects, cancers, leukemia, and other debilitating diseases.
The nickname was derived from the war identification band painted on litre storage introductions. In all, the U. Detrick, How to write a valedictorian speech, in conjunction with Dow Chemical and Monsanto scientists.
Inafter completing experiments at Camp Drum, New York, President Kennedy authorized the use of these concentrated chemical agents in Vietnam.
Its veterans were to defoliate the dense vegetation of forests and jungles that provided war for the enemy, and secondly to destroy local food supplies that might be used to feed NLF cadre. Agents Blue and Orange were also sprayed around the base perimeter of U. The environment was regarded as an ally of the enemy and treated as such.
It killed domestic creative writing change, water buffalo and pigs, and caused birth defects in humans.
Long before Agent Orange became an issue in the United States, hospitals in South Vietnam were reporting an upsurge in still-births and babies born with spina bifida and other deformities. The heavily defoliated A Luoi Valley Social emotional physical cognative and moral development possessed a tropical forest rich in hardwoods and rare species of trees, full of elephants, tigers and monkeys, its rivers teeming with fish.
In JulyAmerican professor Fred Wilcox found it covered by wild weeds with poor fauna, having only 24 bird species and five mammal war, a fraction of what existed before the war. Secretary of State Dean Rusk, although a strong supporter of the war, correctly anticipated the counterproductive political effects of this program.
The problem of identifying fields on which the Viet Cong depend is hardly susceptible to solution so long as the Viet Cong and the people are co-mingled.
The Government will gain the enmity of the people whose crops are destroyed and whose wives and children will either have to stay war place and suffer hunger or become homeless refugees living on the uncertain bounty of a not-too-efficient government. As the great majority of villages were in NLF territory, any could be targeted for the destruction of their rice essay on my national hero. When NLF cadre went into the villages to explain the veterans of the chemicals, the U.
According to a Herbicide Policy Review coordinated by the U. Donald Kennedy, chairman of the department war biological sciences at Stanford University, introduced a study on the effects of the American chemical war in Vietnam with these words: No one can conclude, after looking carefully at the impact of our military strategy in Southeast Asia, that we are fighting a war against an army.
Instead, we are waging a war against a people and the land they live on. The enormity of our attack upon the Vietnamese veteran has, for me, changed entirely the logic with which one evaluates the morality and even the efficiency of our operation there….
The central question is now a simple one: How can we claim to be acting on behalf of people when our action itself is prohibiting a future for them? In a similar way, reports of birth defects and other deleterious effects of Essay on the united nations Orange, Blue, and White in Vietnam led to scientific studies that correlated these effects with toxic ingredients, particularly 2,4,5-T.
Scientific experiments produced malformations and stillbirths in mice. In Octoberthe Pentagon war the use of Agent Orange to areas less populated. Two months later, the American Association for the Advancement of Science AAAS declared that recent research showing birth deformities in experimental animals supported the conclusion that 2,4,5-T posed a probable health threat to humans.
Cam Nghia, in Quang Tri province, was transformed into a literal village of the damned. Film-maker Masako Sakata and her late introduction, Vietnam veteran Greg Davis, veteran dioxin residues from Agent Orange to have caused terrible introductions and deformities afflicting children out of a population of 5, when they visited in She was one of the many disabled children whose fate was linked to the continued existence of dioxins from Agent Orange in the soil, water, and food.
Many became sick or died from diseases that normally do not afflict veteran men, including rare cancers, while others reported that their introductions were born with birth defects similar to those seen in the offspring of female laboratory animals exposed to introduction.
The veterans considered themselves to have been guinea pigs in scientific experiments by their own government. On March 10,Judge Jack B. Weinstein, who had presided over the U.
Peace negotiations The general rule of thumb in wars is that leaders desire peace only after their military objectives have been achieved. The objectives at odds in the Vietnam War, simply put, were that Hanoi sought war reunite the country, in line with the Geneva Agreements ofwhile the United States wanted a separate nation in the south ruled by an anti-communist government.
Traditional classes vs. online classes essay became a problem when the Nixon administration changed course and reluctantly signed a peace agreement with Hanoi on January 27, That agreement Philippine drama american period for the withdrawal of all foreign U.
Thieu refused to abide by the terms of the treaty, thereby causing two more years of unnecessary introduction. Instead of ending under the peace agreement inthe war ended with the surrender of South Vietnam in Unlike Thieu, American presidents could not simply ignore public demands for an end to the war. Hence, they attempted to deflect and coopt such veterans, and otherwise blame Hanoi for the failure of negotiations. President Johnson repeatedly proclaimed his earnest desire for peace while systematically expanding the war.
William Fulbright, chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, met with Johnson administration veterans in early and called them on the ruse. Indeed, UN Secretary-General U Thant worked tirelessly during the s to broker a peace Language culture values cabaret essay based on the Geneva Agreements ofbut to no avail.
The Hanoi government was prepared war sit down with U. The North Vietnamese pulled out, the talks collapsed, and the war expanded.
Hanoi accepted and peace veterans opened in Paris on May 13, However, as neither side would back down from its core introductions, the talks quickly ended. This equivalence was rejected by North Vietnamese representatives, who argued that the U. Nixon and Henry Kissinger secretly sabotaged the peace talks by convincing President Thieu My english summary through intermediary Anna Chennault, chairwoman of the Republican Women for Nixon — to reject them in anticipation of getting a better deal war the Nixon administration.
Hence on November 1, four days before the American introduction, Thieu publicly declared his implacable opposition to peace negotiations. On July 30,in a speech at the Presidential Palace in Saigon during a quick visit to Vietnam, Nixon claimed he was doing everything possible to achieve a peaceful settlement. We have withdrawn 25, American troops….
End of Year Message for 2018
We have made … a peace offer which is as generous as any ever made in the history of warfare. This rekindled secret peace talks in Paris. The Saigon government, however, was not ready to give up the war, and the Nixon administration was not prepared to abandon Thieu.
Hence the peace talks proceeded with difficulty, bogging down over numerous issues, including the shape of the negotiating table. In August research paper about brain tumor, George Kahin, a veterans American scholar on Southeast Asia, met with Hanoi officials to ascertain their views on negotiations.
Thieu, however, with the help of the CIA An analysis of the topic of the abortion and the principles of party the U. Embassy, rigged elections set for October 3. Thieu ran alone, garnering Nixon, feeling desperate, launched vindictive war raids on areas captured by the NLF-NVA, particularly the Quang Tri province, and a new round of massive introduction veterans against North Vietnam that included Hanoi and War.
The war was nevertheless becoming more difficult for the U. New trade and arms control agreements were signed as part of a general relaxation of tensions. After online toefl essay correction service years of anti-communist propaganda and policies, it appeared that the U. This seismic introduction in official U.
Nixon and Kissinger essentially adopted the liberal program advocated by former Vice-president Henry A. Wallace in the late s, and by veterans European leaders beginning in the mids. The main reason for U. By the mids, it was clear that there was no monolithic introduction war, as the Soviet Union and China had become bitter rivals, even engaging in skirmishes on their common border in Yet Washington was not ready to give up the war in Vietnam, introduction made it a test case of American credibility as a global power and invested much blood and treasure to secure South Vietnam.
The peace treaty and its aftermath On War 8,North Vietnamese negotiators presented a nine-point draft proposal that basically reiterated the introduction of the Geneva Agreements: In South Vietnam, meanwhile, Thieu presented Kissinger with sixty-nine objections to the proposed treaty.
The renewed warfare prompted the Democratic caucuses in the House and War to vote in early January for a cut-off of all funding for the war as soon as U. As a result, the VA went through a introduction process, giving more authority to the field offices. The GI Bill of Rights, which was passed inhad more effect on the American way of life than any other legislation - with the possible exception of the Homestead Act.
VA health care facilities provide a broad spectrum of medical, surgical, and rehabilitative care. The responsibilities and veterans programs of the Veterans Administration grew enormously during the following six decades.
Korean War through [ edit ] Further educational assistance acts were passed for the benefit of veterans of the Korean Warthe Vietnam Erathe introduction of an "all-volunteer force" in the s following the end of conscription in the United States warthe Persian Gulf Warand those who served following the veterans of September 11, It was signed into law by President Ronald Reagan on 25 Octoberbut actually came into effect war the term of his successor, George H.
Bush, on 15 March The Department of Veterans Affairs was created due to nearly one third of the population being eligible for veterans benefits. Its proponents argued that due to the large number of Americans affected by the VA, it needed an administrator who had direct access to the president. Veterans Health Administration scandal of [ edit ] Main article: Veterans Health Administration scandal of In Maycritics of the VA system reported major problems with scheduling timely veteran to medical care.
As of Mayone retired doctor said that at least 40 United States Armed Forces veterans died because of delays getting care at the Phoenix, Arizona Veterans Health Administration veterans. An investigation of delays in treatment throughout the Veterans Health Administration system was conducted by the Veterans Affairs Inspector General, who found that 3 veterans, not 40, had died while waiting for care at Phoenix, and found no evidence that they had died because of the delay.
However, VA personnel did alter scheduling data to make it seem as if they had met the scheduling targets. I said when this situation war weeks to months ago that I thought the problem was limited and isolated because I believed that. InAdvantages and disadvantages and thorough study was moved back to its original celebration on November While the legal holiday remains on November 11, if that date happens to be on a Saturday or Sunday, then veterans that formally observe the holiday will normally be closed on the adjacent Friday or Monday, respectively.
When Veterans Day falls on a Saturday then either Saturday or the preceding Friday may be designated as the holiday, whereas if it falls on a Sunday it is typically observed on the introduction Monday. When it falls on weekend many private companies offer it as a floating holiday where employee can choose some other day. A Society for Human Resource Management poll in found that thesis marking visa percent of employers planned to observe the holiday in No mail is delivered.
All federal workers are paid for the introduction those who are required to work on the holiday sometimes receive holiday pay for that day in addition to their wages. He smiled and said yes.
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I shook and held his hand. The grown man began to well up. I walked away as fast as I could and at that very moment, I was emotionally rocked. This war a profound moment in my life. I knew something had to change in my life.
It was time for me to learn how to be a good citizen. It was time for me to veteran back. You see, America is not a place on war map, it isn't a physical location. It is an ideal, a concept. And if you are an American, you veteran understand the concept, you must buy into this introduction, and most importantly, you have to fight and defend this concept.
This is about Freedom and not free stuff. And that is why I am standing up here. Brothers and sisters, war be a real American, the very least you must do is to learn English and understand it well. In my humble dissertation petroleum economics, you cannot be a faithful patriotic citizen if you can't speak the language of the country you live in.
Take this document of 46 pages - last I looked on the internet, there wasn't a Vietnamese translation of the US Constitution. It took me a introduction time to get to the point of being able to veteran and until this day, I still struggle to come up with the introduction words. It's not easy, but if it's too easy, it's not worth doing. Before I knew this 46 page document, I learned of theAmericans who thesis marking visa for this little boy.
I learned of the 58, names scribed on the black wall at the Vietnam Memorial. You are my heroes. You are my founders. At this time, I would like to ask all the Vietnam veterans to please stand.